BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1 – BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Condensed Financial Statements – The accompanying condensed financial statements prepared by Ring Energy, Inc. (the “Company” or “Ring”) have not been audited by an independent registered public accounting firm. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying condensed unaudited financial statements contain all adjustments necessary for fair presentation of the results of operations for the periods presented, which adjustments were of a normal recurring nature, except as disclosed herein. The results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2022, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2022, for various reasons, including the impact of fluctuations in prices received for oil and natural gas, natural production declines, the uncertainty of exploration and development drilling results, fluctuations in the fair value of derivative instruments, and other factors.
These unaudited condensed financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) applicable to interim financial information, and, accordingly, do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. Therefore, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Organization and Nature of Operations – The Company is a Nevada corporation that owns interests in oil and natural gas properties in Texas and New Mexico. The Company’s oil and natural gas sales, profitability and future growth are dependent upon prevailing and future prices for oil and natural gas and the successful acquisition, exploration and development of oil and natural gas properties. Oil and natural gas prices have historically been volatile and may be subject to wide fluctuations in the future. A substantial decline in oil and natural gas prices could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows and quantities of oil and natural gas reserves that may be economically produced.
COVID-19 – In March 2020, the World Health Organization classified the outbreak of COVID-19 as a pandemic. The nature of COVID-19 led to worldwide shutdowns, reductions in commercial and interpersonal activity and changes in consumer behavior. In attempting to control the spread of COVID-19, governments around the world imposed laws and regulations such as shelter-in-place orders, quarantines, executive orders and similar restrictions. As a result, the global economy was marked by significant slowdown and uncertainty, which in turn led to a precipitous decline in oil prices in response to decreased demand, further exacerbated by global energy storage shortages and by the price war among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and other non-OPEC producer nations (collectively with OPEC members, “OPEC+”) during the first quarter 2020. Prices recovered to pre-pandemic levels in 2021 and have recently increased to levels not seen since 2014, due in part to the accessibility of vaccines, reopening of states and other regions around the world after lockdowns, and optimism about the economic recovery. The renewed spread of COVID-19, including vaccine-resistant strains or variants, or another deterioration in oil and natural gas prices could result in additional adverse impacts on the Company’s results of operations, cash flows and financial position, including asset impairments/charges.
Liquidity and Capital Considerations – The Company strives to maintain an adequate liquidity level to address volatility and risk. Sources of liquidity include the Company’s cash flow from operations, cash on hand, available borrowing capacity under its revolving Credit Facility (defined below in Note 8), and proceeds from sales of non-strategic assets.
While changes in oil and natural gas prices affect the Company’s liquidity, the Company has put in place hedges to protect, to some extent, its cash flows from such price declines; however, if oil or natural gas prices rapidly deteriorate due to unanticipated economic conditions, this could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s cash flows in spite of our hedging activities.
The Company expects ongoing oil price volatility over the short term. Extended depressed oil prices have historically had and could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s oil revenue, which may be mitigated to some extent by the Company’s hedge contracts. The Company is mindful of oil price volatility and its impact on the Company’s liquidity.
The Company believes that it has the ability to continue to fund its operations and service its debt by using cash on hand and cash flows from operations.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s unaudited condensed financial statements are based on a number of significant estimates, including estimates of oil and natural gas reserve quantities, which are the basis for the calculation of depletion and impairment of oil and gas properties. Reserve estimates, by their nature, are inherently imprecise. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Changes in the future estimated oil and natural gas reserves or the estimated future cash flows attributable to the reserves that are utilized for impairment analysis could have a significant impact on the Company’s future results of operations.
Fair Value Measurements – Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) has established a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. This hierarchy consists of three broad levels. Level 1 inputs are the highest priority and consist of unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. Level 2 are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 are unobservable inputs for an asset or liability.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments – The carrying amounts reported for the revolving line of credit approximate their fair value because the underlying instruments are at interest rates which approximate current market rates. The carrying amounts of accounts receivables and accounts payable and other current assets and liabilities approximate fair value because of the short-term maturities and/or liquid nature of these assets and liabilities.
Derivative Instruments and Commodity Risk Activities – The Company may periodically enter into derivative contracts to manage its exposure to commodity price risk. These derivative contracts, which are generally placed with major financial institutions, may take the form of forward contracts, futures contracts, swaps or options. The oil and gas reference prices upon which the commodity derivative contracts are based reflect various market indices that have a high degree of historical correlation with actual prices received by the Company for its oil and gas production.
Any gains or losses resulting from changes in fair value of outstanding derivative financial instruments and from the settlement of derivative financial instruments are recognized in earnings and included as a component of Other income (expense) in the Statements of Operations.
When applicable, the Company records all derivative instruments, other than those that meet the normal purchases and sales exception, on the Balance Sheets as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognized currently in earnings unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met. The change in fair value resulted in the recognition of an unrealized gain of $47,712,305 for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and an unrealized gain of $46,391,912 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the change in fair value resulted in the recognition of an unrealized gain of $8,200,688 and an unrealized loss of $40,308,067, respectively, on derivative contracts. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company had realized losses of $14,861,116 and $48,593,882, respectively, on derivatives. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company had realized losses of $14,921,008 and $33,278,132, respectively, on derivatives net of a realized gain of $581,424 in March 2021 from unwinding the Company’s then held gas swaps.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers – The Company had $640,522 of cash on deposit in excess of federally insured limits at September 30, 2022 and $1,936,805 of cash in excess of federally insured limits at December 31, 2021. During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, sales to two customers represented 69% and 4%, respectively, of the Company’s oil and gas revenues. At September 30, 2022, these two customers made up 58% and 12%, respectively, of the Company’s accounts receivable.
At September 30, 2022, approximately 94% of the Company’s accounts receivables and joint interest billing receivables are from purchasers of oil and gas. Oil and gas sales are generally unsecured. The Company also has joint interest billing receivables which are collateralized by the pro rata revenue attributable to the joint interest holders and further by the interest itself. Accounts receivable from joint interest owners or purchasers outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due.The Company has not had any significant credit losses in the past and believes its accounts and joint interest billing receivables are collectable. Accordingly, no material allowance for credit losses has been provided at September 30, 2022.
Oil and Gas Properties – The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas properties. Under this method, all costs associated with the acquisition, leasing, exploration and development of oil and gas reserves are capitalized. Costs capitalized include acquisition costs, estimated future costs of abandonment and site restoration, geological and geophysical expenditures, lease rentals on undeveloped properties and costs of drilling and equipping productive wells and drilling costs for non-productive wells. Drilling costs include directly related overhead costs. Capitalized costs are generally categorized either as being subject to amortization or not subject to amortization. All of the Company’s capitalized costs, excluding inventory, are subject to amortization.
All capitalized costs of oil and gas properties, plus estimated future costs to develop proved reserves, are amortized on the unit-of-production method using estimates of proved reserves as determined by the Company’s independent petroleum engineers. The Company evaluates oil and gas properties for impairment quarterly. The Company did not incur a write down of oil and natural gas properties as a result of the ceiling test for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 or for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. Depreciation, depletion and amortization expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 was $14,324,502 and $34,854,993, respectively, based on depletion at the rate of $11.59 and $11.95, respectively, per barrel of oil equivalent compared to $9,310,524 and $26,693,808, respectively, based on depletion at the rate of $12.12 and $11.64 per barrel of oil equivalent for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. These amounts include $160,928 and $437,015, respectively, of depreciation and amortization for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, compared to $120,817 and $276,677, respectively, of depreciation and amortization for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Equipment, Vehicles and Leasehold Improvements – Office equipment and vehicles are valued at historical cost adjusted for impairment loss less accumulated depreciation. Historical costs include all direct costs associated with the acquisition of office equipment and placing such equipment in service. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based upon an estimated useful life of 3 to 10 years.
Asset Retirement Obligation – The Company records a liability in the period in which an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) is incurred, in an amount equal to the discounted estimated fair value of the obligation that is capitalized. Thereafter, this liability is accreted up to the final estimated retirement cost. An ARO is a future expenditure related to the disposal or other retirement of certain assets. The Company’s ARO relates to future plugging and abandonment expenses of its oil and natural gas properties and related facilities disposal.
Share-Based Employee Compensation – The Company has common outstanding stock option grants and restricted common stock awards to officers and employees, which are described more fully in Note 11. The Company recognizes the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award and recognizes the related compensation expense over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award, which is generally the vesting period.
Share-Based Compensation to Non-Employees – The Company accounts for share-based compensation issued to directors and other non-employees as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date for these issuances is the earlier of (i) the date at which a commitment for performance by the recipient to earn the equity instruments is reached or (ii) the date at which the recipient’s performance is complete.
Income Taxes – Provisions for income taxes are based on taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred taxes. Deferred taxes are based on differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements, and tax carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are included in the financial statements at currently enacted income tax rates applicable to the period in which the deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. As changes in tax laws or rates are enacted, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted through the provision for income taxes.
Since December 31, 2020, the Company has determined that a full valuation allowance is necessary due to the Company assessment that it is more likely than not that it will be unable to obtain the benefits of its deferred tax assets due to the Company’s history of taxable losses. During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company determined that certain existing deferred tax assets will not be offset by existing deferred tax liabilities as a result of the 80% limitation on the utilization net operating losses incurred after 2017. Accordingly, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company recorded federal income tax expense of $3,611,381 and $4,625,429, respectively. The Company recorded state deferred income tax expense of $667,666 and $1,204,579, respectively, during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022. The Company recorded a state current income tax expense of $36,736 during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022. The Company recorded a state deferred income tax benefit of $48,701 and expense of $141,943, respectively, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. The Company has immaterial operations in New Mexico which is in a net deferred tax asset position for which a full valuation allowance is still recorded.
The shares issued for the Stronghold Acquisition (further discussed in Note 5) resulted in the Company having an ownership change under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 382 limits the availability of certain tax attributes, including net operating losses and disallowed interest carryforwards, to offset future taxable income of the Company. In evaluating its need for a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets, the Company has estimated the amount of tax attributes related to the pre-ownership change period to be available under Section 382 in periods in which it expects deferred tax liabilities to be realized based on currently available information. Based on its current analysis, the Company does not anticipate any material tax attributes to expire unused as result of the section 382 ownership change; however, the ultimate timing in the amount of tax attributes available in future periods may be different than our current estimate and will be determined in each year as new information becomes available. Changes in expectation in the timing of the availability of our tax attributes could result in adjustments to the valuation allowance in future years as we update our analysis based on new information.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company’s overall effective tax rate of 4.5% was primarily impacted by the valuation allowance on its federal net deferred tax asset and state income taxes.
Three-Stream Reporting - Beginning July 1, 2022, the Company began reporting volumes and revenues on a three-stream basis, separately reporting crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGLs) sales. For periods prior to July 1, 2022, sales and reserve volumes, prices, and revenues for NGLs were presented with natural gas. This represents a change in our accounting and reporting presentation necessitated by a change in the underlying facts and circumstances surrounding the Stronghold Acquisition, as Stronghold has historically reported its revenues on a three-stream basis. As clarified in the interpretive guidance of ASC 250, such changes should not be applied on a retrospective basis. Accordingly, we began reporting on a three-stream basis prospectively, beginning July 1, 2022.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements – In December 2019, the FASB released Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2019-12 (“ASU 2019-12”), “Income Taxes (Topic 740) – Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” which removes certain exceptions for recognizing deferred taxes for investments, performing intraperiod allocation and calculating income taxes in interim periods. The ASU also adds guidance to reduce complexity in certain areas, including recognizing deferred taxes for tax goodwill and allocating taxes to members of a consolidated group. The amended standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020.The adoption of ASU 2019-12 did not have a material impact to the Company’s financial statements or disclosures.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-10, “Codification Improvements” (“ASU 2020-10”), which clarifies or improves disclosure requirements for various topics to align with SEC regulations. This update was effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2021 and was applied retrospectively. The adoption and implementation of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)” (“ASU 2020-06”). ASU 2020-06 was issued to reduce the complexity associated with accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. The guidance may be applied using either a modified retrospective or a fully retrospective method. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 effective January 1, 2022. The adoption and implementation of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements - In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting” (“ASU 2020-04”), which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contract modifications and hedging relationships, subject to meeting certain criteria, that reference LIBOR or another rate that is expected to be discontinued. ASU 2020-04 will be in effect through December 31, 2022. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope (“ASU 2021-01”), to provide clarifying guidance regarding the scope of Topic 848. ASU 2020-04 was issued to provide optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. The Company is currently assessing the impact of adopting this new guidance.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, “Business Combinations (Topic 805) - Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers” (“ASU 2021-08”). This update requires the acquirer in a business combination to record contract asset and liabilities following Topic 606 - “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” at acquisition as if it had originated the contract, rather than at fair value. This update is effective for public business entities beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The Company continues to evaluate the provisions of this update, but it does not believe the adoption will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.
Basic and Diluted Earnings per Share – Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if all contracts to issue common stock were converted into common stock, except for those that are anti-dilutive. The dilutive effect of stock options and other share-based compensation is calculated using the treasury method.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef