BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2019
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1 – BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Condensed Financial Statements – The accompanying condensed financial statements prepared by Ring Energy, Inc. (the “Company” or “Ring”) have not been audited by an independent registered public accounting firm. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying unaudited financial statements contain all adjustments necessary for fair presentation of the results of operations for the periods presented, which adjustments were of a normal recurring nature, except as disclosed herein. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2019.
Certain notes and other disclosures have been omitted from these interim financial statements. Therefore, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Organization and Nature of Operations – The Company is a Nevada corporation that owns interests in oil and natural gas properties located in Texas and New Mexico. The Company’s oil and natural gas sales, profitability and future growth are dependent upon prevailing and future prices for oil and natural gas and the successful acquisition, exploration and development of oil and natural gas properties. Oil and natural gas prices have historically been volatile and may be subject to wide fluctuations in the future. A substantial decline in oil and natural gas prices could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows and quantities of oil and natural gas reserves that may be economically produced.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Changes in the future estimated oil and natural gas reserves or the estimated future cash flows attributable to the reserves that are utilized for impairment analysis could have a significant impact on the Company’s future results of operations.
Fair Measurements – Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) has established a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. This hierarchy consists of three broad levels. Level 1 inputs are the highest priority and consist of unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. Level 2 are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 are unobservable inputs for an asset or liability.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments – The carrying amounts reported for the revolving line of credit approximates fair value because the underlying instruments are at interest rates which approximate current market rates. The carrying amounts of accounts receivables and accounts payable and other current assets and liabilities approximate fair value because of the short-term maturities and/or liquid nature of these assets and liabilities.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities – The Company may periodically enter into derivative contracts to manage its exposure to commodity risk. These derivative contracts, which are generally placed with major financial institutions, may take the form of forward contracts, futures contracts, swaps, or options. The oil and gas reference prices upon which the commodity derivative contracts are based reflect various market indices that have a high degree of historical correlation with actual prices received by the Company for its oil and gas production.
When applicable, the Company records all derivative instruments, other than those that meet the normal purchases and sales exception, on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognized currently in earnings unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, the change in fair value resulted in the recognition of unrealized gains of $1,530,230 and $1,189,545,
respectively, on derivative contracts. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, the change in fair value resulted in the recognition of unrealized losses of $1,099,273 and $1,889,974, respectively, on derivative contracts.
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company had no realized gain or losses on derivatives. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company had realized losses on derivatives of $2,402,426 and $3,877,452, respectively.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customer – The Company had cash in excess of federally insured limits at June 30, 2019. During the six months ended June 30, 2019, sales to two customers represented 45% and 35%, respectively, of the Company’s oil and gas revenues. At June 30, 2019, these two customers made up 44% and 30%, respectively, of the Company’s accounts receivable.
Approximately 94% of the Company’s accounts and joint interest billing receivables are from purchasers of oil and gas. Oil and gas sales are generally unsecured. The Company has not had any significant credit losses in the past and believes its accounts and joint interest billing receivables are fully collectable. Accordingly, no allowance for doubtful accounts has been provided at June 30, 2019. The Company also has a joint interest billing receivable. Joint interest billing receivables are collateralized by the pro rata revenue attributable to the joint interest holders and further by the interest itself.
Oil and Gas Properties – The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas properties. Under this method, all costs associated with the acquisition, leasing, exploration, and development of oil and gas reserves are capitalized. Costs capitalized include acquisition costs, estimated future costs of abandonment and site restoration, geological and geophysical expenditures, lease rentals on undeveloped properties and costs of drilling and equipping productive and non-productive wells. Drilling costs include directly related overhead costs. Capitalized costs are generally categorized either as being subject to amortization or not subject to amortization. All of our costs are subject to amortization.
All capitalized costs of oil and gas properties, plus estimated future costs to develop proved reserves, are amortized on the unit-of-production method using estimates of proved reserves as determined by independent petroleum engineers. The Company evaluates oil and gas properties for impairment at least annually. Depreciation, depletion and amortization expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, was $14,615,270 and $27,544,324, respectively, based on depletion at the rate of $14.70 and $14.72 per barrel of oil equivalent compared to $9,144,115 and $17,645,494, respectively, based on depletion at the rate of $16.36 and $17.40 per barrel of oil equivalent for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018. These amounts include $66,277 and $107,431, respectively, of depreciation for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, compared to $48,740 and $129,186, respectively, of depreciation for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
Equipment, vehicles and leasehold improvements – Office equipment is valued at historical cost adjusted for impairment loss less accumulated depreciation. Historical costs include all direct costs associated with the acquisition of office equipment and placing such equipment in service. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based upon an estimated useful life of 5 to 7 years.
Asset Retirement Obligation – The Company records a liability in the period in which an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) is incurred, in an amount equal to the discounted estimated fair value of the obligation that is capitalized. Thereafter, this liability is accreted up to the final estimated retirement cost. An ARO is a future expenditure related to the disposal or other retirement of certain assets. The Company’s ARO relates to future plugging and abandonment expenses of its oil and natural gas properties and related facilities disposal.
Revenue Recognition – In January 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 Revenues from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”). The timing of recognizing revenue from the sale of
produced crude oil and natural gas was not changed as a result of adopting ASU 2014-09. The Company predominantly derives its revenue from the sale of produced crude oil and natural gas. The contractual performance obligation is satisfied when the product is delivered to the customer. Revenue is recorded in the month the product is delivered to the purchaser and the Company receives payment from one to three months after delivery. The transaction price includes variable consideration as product pricing is based on published market prices and reduced for contract specified differentials. The new guidance regarding ASU 2014-09 does not require that the transaction price be fixed or stated in the contract. Estimating the variable consideration does not require significant judgment and Ring engages third party sources to validate the estimates. Revenue is recognized net of royalties due to third parties in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products. See Note 2 for additional information.
Share-Based Employee Compensation – The Company has outstanding stock option grants to directors, officers and employees, which are described more fully in Note 11. The Company recognizes the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award and recognizes the related compensation expense over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award, which is generally the vesting period.
Share-Based Compensation to Non-Employees – The Company accounts for share-based compensation issued to non-employees as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date for these issuances is the earlier of (i) the date at which a commitment for performance by the recipient to earn the equity instruments is reached or (ii) the date at which the recipient’s performance is complete.
Income Taxes – Provisions for income taxes are based on taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred taxes. Deferred taxes are provided on differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements, and tax carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are included in the financial statements at currently enacted income tax rates applicable to the period in which the deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. As changes in tax laws or rates are enacted, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted through the provision for income taxes.
In January 2017, the Company adopted ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718.) The Company used the modified retrospective method to account for unrecognized excess tax benefits from prior periods. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, we recorded a decrease of $598,332 and $4,471,900, respectively, to our income tax provision. For the three months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recorded no change in the income tax provision. For the six months ended June 30, 2018, we recorded an increase of $1,158,604 to our income tax provision.
On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”). The SEC subsequently issued a Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, “Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act. Among other changes, the Tax Act lowered the corporate tax rate to 21%.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements – In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”). For lessees, the amendments in this update require that for all leases not considered to be short term, a company recognize both a lease liability and right-of-use asset on its balance sheet, representing the obligation to make payments and the right to use or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method and chose the option to not restate prior periods and to record any cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company’s adoption of ASU 2016-02 did not require a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings. The Company opted to not apply ASU 2016-02 to its leases with terms of 12 months or less. See Note 3 – Leases for new disclosures required as a result of our adoption of ASU 2016-02.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which makes significant changes to the current hedge accounting guidance. The new standard eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and generally requires the entire change in the fair value of a hedging instrument to be presented in the same income statement line as the hedged item. The new standard also eases certain documentation and assessment requirements and modifies the accounting for components excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The Company adopted this guidance in January 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The new standard allows for stranded tax effects resulting from tax reform legislation known as the Tax Act previously recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income to be reclassified to retained earnings. The Company adopted this guidance in January 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”). ASU 2018-13 will eliminate, add and modify certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurement. ASU 2018-13 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for either the entire standard or only the provisions that eliminate or modify requirements. ASU 2018-13 requires the additional disclosure requirements be adopted using a retrospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2018-13 and assessing the impact it may have on its disclosures in the notes to the financial statements.
Basic and Diluted Earnings (Loss) per Share – Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if all contracts to issue common stock were converted into common stock, except for those that are anti-dilutive. The dilutive effect of stock options and other share-based compensation is calculated using the treasury method.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef